Yahrtzeits, Friday, 27 Tammuz
Birth and yahrtzeit of Yosef ben Yaakov Avinu (1561-1451 BCE). According to most opinions, however, the actual date was 1 Tammuz.
Rav Yitzchak Charif of Sambur (1833), author of Sheilos U’teshuvos Pnei Yitzchak and Ha’elef Lecha Shlomo. He was the son of Rav Moshe of Dregatchin, author of Maggid Mishneh on Mishnas Chassidim.
Rav Nachum Tarbitch, author of Kovetz HaRambam (1848).
Rav Yaakov Shaul Elisher of Yerushalayim, author of Yisa Ish, Yisa Bracha, and other sefarim (1906).
Rav Yaakov Adess, born in Yerushalayim (1898-1963), the youngest of his father’s four sons. He received his early education from his father, Rav Avraham Chaim Adess. In 1910, his father placed him in Yeshivas Ohel Moed, where he learned under Rav Raphael Shlomo Laniado and Rav Yosef Yedid Halevi. There, he stayed as magid shiur from 1920-1923, when the yeshiva closed. He moved with Rav Laniado to Porat Yosef, first as magid shiur and later as Rosh Yeshiva. Most of his writings on Shas were destroyed when the Jordanians captured the Old City in 1948. At the end of 1945, Rav Adess was appointed as av beis din in Yerushalayim. In 1955, he was chosen to serve on the Chief Rabbinate’s Beis Din Hagodol.
Rav Shmuel (ben Michel Dovid) Rozovsky (1913-1979), born in Grodna to Rav Michel Dovid (Rav of Grodna for 40 years) and Sarah Pearl, daughter of Rav Avraham Gelburd, who had served as Grodna’s previous rav for almost 50 years. At a very young age, he began to study in the Shaar HaTorah Yeshiva of Grodna, under Rav Shimon Shkop, eventually becoming his talmid muvhak. In 1935, his father was niftar, and the gedolei Torah urged Rav Shmuel to succeed him. However, he was drafted into the Russian army and moved to Eretz Yisrael. There he began studying in the Lomza Yeshiva in Petach Tikvah. In 1944, Rav Yosef Shlomo Kahaneman opened the Ponovezh Yeshiva and chose Rav Shmuel, only 30 at the time, to head the yeshiva. Later on, he was joined by Rav Dovid Povarsky and Rav Elazar Menachem Man Shach. Subsequently, he was asked by Rav Kahaneman to head the newly founded Grodna Yeshiva in Ashdod.
Rav Elimelech Ehrlich (1914-1989), a seventh generation Karlin chossid, was born in the town of Kodznahorodok, next to Stolin, not far from the border of Poland and Russia. During WW II, his family moved to Samarkand. There, he composed Yiddish niggunim for the many Jewish refugees, cheering their broken hearts. His role in life was thus fixed. After the war, in Paris, Rav Yom Tov discovered a new brand of fire which began to kindle in his heart: Novardok. He later mved to New York, and then to Eretz Yisrael.
Rav Mordechai (ben Yitzchak) Twersky, Skverer Rebbe of Flatbush (1924-2007). Born in Kishinev, he moved with his family to America when he was four months old. When his father was niftar in 1941, Rav Mordechai and his brother, Rav Dovid, ran their father’s beis midrash in Boro Park. Rav Mordechai opened the Skverer beis midrash in 1970.
Yahrtzeits, Shabbos, 28 Tammuz
Rav Elazar of Lizhensk (1806). He was the oldest son of the Rebbe Reb Elimelech of Lizhensk. He put together his father’s sefer, Noam Elimelech, which contains several letters of Rav Elazar in the back. His sons were Rav Naftali of Lizhensk and Rav Mendel Ber of Pshevorsk; his son-in-law was Rav Chaim Meir Yechiel Shapira of Moglenitz
Rav Moshe (ben Tzvi Hirsch) Teitelbaum, av beis din of Ujhely, Hungary (1759-1841), author of Yismach Moshe, founder of Satmar and Sighet dynasties. He was a direct descendent of the Rema. He served as Rav and Av Beis Din of Shinova at the age of 26. He made a shiduch with his only daughter to a chasid of the Chozeh of Lublin, and shortly thereafter became a follower himself. He taught Rav Yechezkel Shraga Halberstam of Shinova.
Rav Yeshayahu Meshulam Zusha Twersky (1881). Son of Rav Aharon of Chernobyl and father of Rav Shlomo Bentzion of Chernobyl.
Rav Shlomo (ben Yosef) Ganzfried (1804-1886), born in Ungwar, Hungary. His father died while he was still young, and he was raised by the Rav of Ungwar, Rav Tzvi Hirsch Heller. He is the author of Kitzur Shulchan Aruch.
Rav Nachman (ben Chaim Aryeh) HaKohen Kahana (1904). He was the Av Beis Din of Spinka. He was the son-in-law of the first Spinka Rebbe, the Imrei Yosef. He wrote sefer Orchos Chaim on Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim.
Rav Yaakov Shaul Elyashar (1817-1906). Born to Rav Eliezer Yerucham Elyashar in Tzefas, young Yaakov Shaul moved with his mother at the age of six to Yerushalayim; his father dies a year later. His mother’s second husband, Rav Binyamin Mordechai Navon, took the boy under his wing. In 1883, Rav Yaakov Shaul accepted to become Rishon Letzion. At the inauguration, he also received the title of Chacham Bashi by the Turkish rulers. Rav Yaakov Shaul authored the sefer Yissa Bracha. His son, Rav Nissim Elyashar, founded a charedi community in Yerushalayim and named it Givat Shaul, in his father’s honor.
Rav Chaim Friedlander (1923-1986), mashgiach in Ponovezh. He is considered one of the closest disciples of Rav Dessler. Author of Sifsei Chaim and Mesilos Chaim B’Chinuch.
Today in History – 27 Tammuz
· Pope Innocent III promulgated a Church doctrine that the Jews were doomed to perpetual servitude and subjugation because they had killed J.C., 1205. (The charge of deicide against the Jews was not officially removed from Church doctrine until 1963. There are still many Christians who believe in the guilt of the Jews, and who act upon that belief.)
· The third expulsion of the Jews of France, 1322.
· Jews of Rome were forced into a ghetto by order of Pope Paul IV, 1555.
· Baruch Laibov and Alexander Voznitzin were burned alive in St. Petersburg, Russia, with the approval of Empress Anna Johanova, 1738. Voznitzin, a Russian naval captain, was guilty of the crime of converting to Judaism and Laibov was guilty of helping him.
· Jews of Holstein, Germany were granted equality, 1893.
· The first and only successful hijacking of an El Al aircraft – – heading from Rome to Israel – took place when a Boeing 707 jet carrying 10 crew members and 38 passengers was taken over by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, 1968. The terrorists diverted the plane to Algiers. Most of the passengers were released quickly. Seven crew members and five Israeli male passengers were held hostage for five weeks and released after 40 days of negotiation.
Today in History – 28 Tammuz
· The Catholic Church burns 41 Jews at the stake in Breslau, Germany, then expels the remaining Jews, 1453.
· The ghetto in Florence, Italy was established, 1571.
· Jews of Brussels were ordered expelled, 1716.
· Soon after the colony of Georgia was settled by General James Oglethorpe, the first group of Jews arrived in Savanna from England, 1733. The approximately 40 Jews included Dr. Samuel Nunez, a former court physician, and Abraham de Leon, who introduced viniculture to the colony. Later that same month a group of 12 indigent German Jewish families also arrived. Oglethorpe was originally against allowing the Jews to remain, until the doctor helped stop an epidemic. (In the 1700’s, Sephardic Jews were considered richer, more educated and more aristocratic than the poorer and more primitive German Jews. One hundred and fifty years later, the German Jews looked down on Eastern European Jews as more primitive, and 100 years after that, the Askenazic German and East European Jews looked down on the Sephardic Jews.)
· Jews of Chevron were attacked by Arabs, 1835.
· German elections resulted in the reactionary element having a dominant voice in the Reichstag, 1878. This date is considered the birthday of modern German anti- Semitism.
· Austria-Hungaryissued an ultimatum to Serbia after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The dispute led to World War I.
· League of Nations confirmed Britain’s mandate to administer Palestine, 1922.
· The Spanish Civil War began, 1936, which ended April 1st, 1939, with the victory of the rebels and the founding of a dictatorship led by the Nationalist General Francisco Franco.
· Nazis kill 5000 Jews in Rovno, Polish Ukraine, 1942.